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JVM(Java Virtual Machine)

JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is an abstract machine that enables your computer to run a Java program.
When you run the Java program, Java compiler first compiles your Java code to bytecode. Then, the JVM translates bytecode into native machine code (set of instructions that a computer’s CPU executes directly).
Java is a platform-independent language. It’s because when you write Java code, it’s ultimately written for JVM but not your physical machine (computer). Since, JVM executes the Java bytecode which is platform independent, Java is platform-independent.


1) ClassLoader

The class loader is a subsystem used for loading class files. It performs three major functions viz.
Loading, Linking, and Initialization.

2) Method Area

JVM Method Area stores class structures like metadata, the constant runtime pool, and the code for methods.

3) Heap

All the Objects, their related instance variables, and arrays are stored in the heap. This memory is
common and shared across multiple threads.

4) JVM language Stacks

Java language Stacks store local variables, and it’s partial results. Each thread has its own JVM stack,created simultaneously as the thread is created. A new frame is created whenever a method is invoked,and it is deleted when method invocation process is complete.

5) PC(program counter) Registers

PC register store the address of the Java virtual machine instruction which is currently executing. In Java,each thread has its separate PC register.

6) Native Method Stacks

Native method stacks hold the instruction of native code depends on the native library. It is written in
another language instead of Java.

7) Execution Engine

It is a type of software used to test hardware, software, or complete systems. The test execution engine never carries any information about the tested product.

8)Native Method interface

The Native Method Interface is a programming framework. It allows Java code which is running in a JVM to call by libraries and native applications.

9)Native Method Libraries

Native Libraries is a collection of the Native Libraries(C, C++) which are needed by the Execution Engine.


JRE (Java Runtime Environment) is a software package that provides Java class libraries, along with Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and other components to run applications written in Java programming. JRE is the superset of JVM.


JDK (Java Development Kit) is a software development kit to develop applications in Java. When you download JDK, JRE is also downloaded, and don’t need to download it separately. In addition to JRE, JDK also contains number of development tools (compilers, JavaDoc, Java Debugger etc.